HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION rector of the new gymnasium at Nuremberg, wrote very little with direct reference to education. But the school addresses he delivered at Nuremberg, read in conjunction with occasional passages in his writings, give indications of an educational philosophy as wise and as profound as his wonderful philosophical system. " Pedagogy," he says, " is the art of making man moral. It regards man as one with nature, and points out the way in which he may be born again, and have his first nature changed into a second spiritual nature, in such fashion that the spiritual nature may become habitual to him."* The child begins life in the bondage of nature, a creature of sense rather than a thinking being, Yet potentially he has inherent in him the freedom that is the essential mark or man as a spiritual being, and gradually his powers are awakened by the instruction he receives in home and school, and he becomes ready for the new birth of the spirit. But before he can pass out of nature into spirit there needs to be a definite breach with the natural interests in the years of adolescence. He must suffer the pangs of self-estrangement, and realize the total inadequacy of all experience that is merely individual. He must reach out after the universal in the life of imagination and thought. Here the school can be of great service to him, especially if it acquaints him with the literature of the ancient world. The Greek city State succeeded in bringing individual will into harmony with universal purpose for a brief glorious moment; and in his study of its genius the youth is withdrawn from the narrow particularity of his own life and given a glimpse of the complete many-sided life on which culture and morals must rest. But even this is only a stage on the way to manhood. Obedience to authority, reverence for the spiritual accomplishments of the past, self-renunciation, though necessary as a phase, lead on—or should lead on, if the personal development is not arrested prematurely—to the discovery of the new spiritual self that realizes its freedom through adult participation in the spirit of the nation. This pilgrim's progress that re-makes the natural individuality into a spiritual, and culminates in a citizen- ship which involves community with the Absolute and Eternal embodied in the nation, is all through a social process. That .which is explicit in the common life is implicit in each individual life; and the individual rises to the perfection of his own life * Quoted, Mackenzie, Hegel's Educational Theory and Practice, p. 63.